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Winkel II

Parameters: Standard parallel




Meridians: Elliptic curves.
Parallels: Equally spaced straight parallel lines, with spacing greater than earth’s reality. Perpendicular to the central meridian.
Poles: Points.
Symmetry: About the central meridian and the equator.


Undistorted at 40°N (or other, depending on the standard parallel) on the central meridian. Angular deformation dominates away from the equator, poles, and central meridian. Distortion is more evenly mixed elsewhere.


One parameter, a “standard parallel”, along which scale is correct, but only in the direction of the parallel.

Similar projections

Cabot has similar parallel spacing and similar meridional curves, but its pole lines are shorter.


Oswald Winkel, 1918.

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